PL/pgSQL - Converting Reverse IP Pointer Records

pl/pgSQL (Procedural SQL!)

I recently learned about about a SQL langauge extension available in Postgres called “pl/pgSQL”.
It let’s you write procedural statements inside an SQL function!
This is really great for when sometimes you need to write one-off migration scripts that might be convuloted.
Writing it using pure SQL might make it needlessly complex or requiredeep knowledge of SQL to write elegantly.

An Interesting Problem (Maybe): IPv4 reverse -> INET

The Postgres documentation is here, but it can be a little dry.
So instead let’s write a function that validates/converts an “Reverse DNS Pointer Record” like 4.4.8.8.in-addr.arpa into an Postgres’s INET type with the correct CIDR,which will allow to learn the features pl/pgSQL along the way.

Examples

The table below demonstrates what we are trying to achieve:

rev_ip expected_inet
“16.172.in-addr.arpa.” “172.16.0.0/16”
“69.168.192.in-addr.arpa.” 192.168.69.0/24”
“10.69.168.192.in-addr.arpa.” “192.168.69.10”
“10.in-addr.arpa.” “10.0.0.0/8”
“10.10.in-addr.arpa.” “10.10.0.0/16”
“10.10.10.in-addr.arpa.” “10.10.10.0/24”
“10.10.10.10.in-addr.arpa.” “10.10.10.10”
“255.255.255.255.in-addr.arpa.” “255.255.255.255”
“0.in-addr.arpa.” “0.0.0.0/8”
“256.in-addr.arpa.”  
“254.254.254.256.in-addr.arpa.”  
“9000.10.10.in-addr.arpa.”  
“.in-addr.arpa.”  
“wrong.in-addr.arpa.”  
“wrong.wrong.in-addr.arpa.”  
“10.10.in-addr.arpa.com”  
“foo.in-addr.arpanet.com”  
“9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999.in-addr.arpanet.”  

SQL Fiddle
NOTE: Unfortunately SQL Fiddle does not seem to support pl/pgSQL, so you will have to test the function in an actual instance of Postgres

High Level Overview

Below is the high level overview of what our function will do to convert
69.168.192.in-addr.arpa.->192.168.69.0/24

Algorithm

  1. Use “Regular Expression” to validate that we are indeed dealing with a reversed IPv4, and capture the octets
    e.g. 69.168.192.in-addr.arpa. -> [69, 168, 192, NULL]
  2. Loop through the array of octets
    • Break if the octet is NULL
    • Validate that it is a number between 0-255 (inclusive)
    • Append the octet to a string in reversed order
  3. Add the CIDR mask based on the number of octets captured in Step 1
  4. Use Postgres’s built in INET type to convert our TEXT into INET

    Step-by-Step (Snippets)

    Function Declaration

    CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION rev_to_forward_ipv4(ipv4 TEXT) RETURNS INET AS $$ 
    -- Function implementation goes here
    $$ LANGUAGE PLPGSQL IMMUTABLE;
    

    Most of the function declaration is fairly standard SQL, however there are a couple interesting parts:

    • Using LANGUAGE PLPGSQL declares that we will be using the PL/PGSQL syntax
    • The IMMUTABLE keyword tells Postgres engine that our function is a “pure” function that has no side-effects (Doesn’t touch the database) and produces the same output given the same input everytime. This allows the optimizer to pre-evaluate/cache results it has already calculated.

      Variable Declaration

      When using PL/PGSQL we need to declare the variables we are going to use, like so:

      CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION rev_to_forward_ipv4(ipv4 TEXT) RETURNS INET AS $$ 
      -- NEW CODE 
      DECLARE
       octets TEXT[4]; -- Array we will store regex captures in
       octet TEXT; -- Temporary loop variable
       inet_string CITEXT := ''; -- String that we will build as we loop over octets
       num_octets INTEGER := 0; -- Count of octets used for calculating CIDR
       n INTEGER; -- Variable to convert "octet" into a INTEGER to confirm it is between 0-255
      -- ...
      $$ LANGUAGE PLPGSQL IMMUTABLE;
      

      Getting Octets With Regular Expressions

      CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION rev_to_forward_ipv4(ipv4 TEXT) RETURNS INET AS $$ 
      -- ...
      -- NEW CODE 
      BEGIN
       -- Regex for matching reversed ip address starting with octet and ending in ".in-addr.arpa."
       -- All the \d+  are inside capture groups
       -- ^(\d+)\.       There should be at-least one octet at the start of the string
       -- (?:(\d+)\.)?   We use non-capturing groups for next 3 octets with "?" because they might not be present
       -- (?:(\d+)\.)?
       -- (?:(\d+)\.)?
       -- in-addr\.arpa\.
       -- e.g. '10.20.in-addr.arpa.' will produce array of {'10', '20', NULL, NULL}
       SELECT regexp_matches(ipv4, '^(\d+)\.(?:(\d+)\.)?(?:(\d+)\.)?(?:(\d+)\.)?in-addr\.arpa\.$') INTO octets;
       -- If we don't capture any octets then this isn't a reversed IPv4 PTR record and we can just return NULL
       IF octets IS NULL THEN 
         RETURN NULL;
       END IF;
       -- Validated rev ipv4 is something like:
       -- 'x.x.x.x.in-addr.arpa.' cidr = 32
       -- 'x.x.x.in-addr.arpa.'   cidr = 24
       -- 'x.x.in-addr.arpa.'     cidr = 16
       -- 'x.in-addr.arpa.'       cidr = 8
       -- 'x' represents numbers from 0-255 inclusive (Actual number validation is done in the statements below)
      -- ...
      $$ LANGUAGE PLPGSQL IMMUTABLE;
      

      The key line here is: SELECT regexp_matches(ipv4, '^(\d+)\.(?:(\d+)\.)?(?:(\d+)\.)?(?:(\d+)\.)?in-addr\.arpa\.$') INTO octets; Here we are injecting the result of the SELECT statement into our array! In this case we are using it to capture the rows produced by the regexp_matches function given our inputs, but it could also be used to capture the results from normal SELECT ... FROM ... type of statements.

      Looping Over The Octets

      CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION rev_to_forward_ipv4(ipv4 TEXT) RETURNS INET AS $$ 
      -- ...
      -- NEW CODE 
       FOREACH octet IN ARRAY octets LOOP
         -- EXIT the loop when the octet is NULL
         EXIT WHEN octet IS NULL;
      
         -- If's it's not NULL we increase the number of octets
         -- Also we make sure our octets are within a valid range
         BEGIN
             num_octets := num_octets + 1;
             n = octet :: INTEGER;
      
             -- Ensure number is within valid range
             IF n > 255 THEN
                 RETURN NULL;
             END IF;
         EXCEPTION 
             WHEN OTHERS THEN
                 RETURN NULL;
         END;
      		
         -- When appending, we add the old string last to reverse the order of octets
         inet_string :=  octet || '.' || inet_string;
      	END LOOP;
      -- ...
      $$ LANGUAGE PLPGSQL IMMUTABLE;
      

      Add CIDR

       -- Trim the leading dot we added in for loop and append CIDR
       inet_string := TRIM(BOTH '.' FROM INET_STRING) || '/' || num_octets * 8;
      

      CAST into INET

      Finally with our fully constructed inet_string we can CAST into the Postgres INET type using the :: operator.

	BEGIN
		RETURN inet_string::INET;
	EXCEPTION 
		WHEN OTHERS THEN
			RETURN NULL;
	END;

Full Source


CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION rev_to_forward_ipv4(ipv4 TEXT) RETURNS INET AS $$ 
DECLARE
	octets TEXT[4];
	octet TEXT;
	inet_string CITEXT := '';
	num_octets INTEGER := 0;
	n INTEGER;
BEGIN
	-- Regex for matching reversed ip address starting with octet and ending in ".in-addr.arpa."
	-- All the \d+  are inside capture groups
	-- ^(\d+)\.       There should be at-least one octet at the start of the string
	-- (?:(\d+)\.)?   We use non-capturing groups for next 3 octets with "?" because they might not be present
	-- (?:(\d+)\.)?
	-- (?:(\d+)\.)?
	-- in-addr\.arpa\.
	-- e.g. '10.20.in-addr.arpa.' will produce array of {'10', '20', NULL, NULL}
	SELECT regexp_matches(ipv4, '^(\d+)\.(?:(\d+)\.)?(?:(\d+)\.)?(?:(\d+)\.)?in-addr\.arpa\.$') INTO octets;
	IF octets IS NULL THEN 
		RETURN NULL;
	END IF;
	-- Validated ipv4 is something like:
	-- 'x.x.x.x.in-addr.arpa.' cidr = 32
	-- 'x.x.x.in-addr.arpa.'   cidr = 24
	-- 'x.x.in-addr.arpa.'     cidr = 16
	-- 'x.in-addr.arpa.'       cidr = 8
	-- 'x' represents numbers from 0-255 inclusive (Actual number validation is done in the statements below)
	
	FOREACH octet IN ARRAY octets LOOP
		EXIT WHEN octet IS NULL;
		
		BEGIN
			num_octets := num_octets + 1;
			n = octet :: INTEGER;

            -- Ensure number is within valid range
            IF n > 255 THEN
                RETURN NULL;
            END IF;
		
		EXCEPTION 
			WHEN OTHERS THEN
				RETURN NULL;
		END;
		
		-- When appending, we add the old string last to reverse the order of octets
		inet_string :=  octet || '.' || inet_string;
  	END LOOP;

	-- Trim the leading dot we added in for loop and append CIDR
	inet_string := TRIM(BOTH '.' FROM INET_STRING) || '/' || num_octets * 8;
	
	BEGIN
		RETURN inet_string::INET;
	EXCEPTION 
		WHEN OTHERS THEN
			RETURN NULL;
	END;
END;

$$ LANGUAGE PLPGSQL IMMUTABLE;

Appendix

SQL Setup

DROP TABLE IF EXISTS reverse_ipv4;
CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS reverse_ipv4 (
	rev_ip TEXT PRIMARY KEY,
    expected_inet INET
);

INSERT INTO reverse_ipv4 (rev_ip, expected_inet) VALUES 
	('10.in-addr.arpa.', '10.0.0.0/8'::INET),
	('10.10.in-addr.arpa.', '10.10.0.0/16'::INET),
	('10.10.10.in-addr.arpa.', '10.10.10.0/24'::INET),
	('10.10.10.10.in-addr.arpa.', '10.10.10.10'::INET),
	('255.255.255.255.in-addr.arpa.', '255.255.255.255'::INET),
	('0.in-addr.arpa.', '0.0.0.0/8'::INET),
	('256.in-addr.arpa.', NULL),
	('254.254.254.256.in-addr.arpa.', NULL),
	('9000.10.10.in-addr.arpa.', NULL),
	('.in-addr.arpa.', NULL),
	('wrong.in-addr.arpa.', NULL),
	('wrong.wrong.in-addr.arpa.', NULL),
	('10.10.in-addr.arpa.com', NULL),
	('foo.in-addr.arpanet.com', NULL),
	('9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999.in-addr.arpanet.', NULL)
	ON CONFLICT DO NOTHING;